Originally written in German, this article has been translated by Google Translator
(for original german text click on the German flag in the upper right)
Attract citizens for engagement and par-ticipation in urban development: land and down the country on the same goal. Round tables, investment projects, residents meetings, volunteer fairs - it was and is not only made a lot, but also intensively evaluated and researched. And yet the question of how citizen-community commitment to long-term success, not answered contain it.
Only recently was re-launched a new research project in August 2013 (BBSR 2013). It will examine, among other things, the requirements on the part of volunteers in civic engagement in the district be-are and what conditions civic engagement in neighborhood development bene-term.
Lessons learned in the USA - Comprehensive Community Development is
Perhaps an approach from Chicago could give the German discussion valuable impulses, who also wrote the success story in the U.S. since the late 1990s. Even, or perhaps because the conditions in America differ from the German environment so much. "Comprehensive Community Develop-ment" (CCD) - in German: comprehensive city (district) development - which was developed by Jim Capraro since the 1980 years, in Chicago, is a comprehensive approach to revitalize neighborhoods, where - so the sober definition of the CCD Institute ( www.instituteccd.org ) - especially people with low and be modest (moderate) income to live. CCD will - similar to the approach of the program "Socially Integrative City" - to implement a cross-sectoral approach to development and overcome thinking in "program silos" (Capraro, 2013), so that a higher value is created by the cooperation of program initiatives: "When practicing community development comprehensively , the whole is indeed Greater Than the Sum of its parts "(Capraro, 2013). The approach is based and extended practice of community organizing, which was received in the German community work.
Compared to Germany in the USA is a much less pronounced public infrastructure, such as in education, health care or social work. Therefore, the CCD is much less on institutions. Rather, the approach supports the self-organization of the residents / inside of a neighborhood. For example, a free for patient / interior consultation by voluntarily active physicians build in a social focal point.
The CCD approach is comprehensive because it
Participation not as a single event, but takes as a basic attitude, inviting and enabling and really integrating. It also succeeds, minorities and migrants to involved, because it is - especially in the initial phase - a particular aim of the approach to address all the major players in the district and to address their points of view. This effective cross-linking also promoted a snowball effect among the actors.
Figure 1: CDD succeed participation and activation of the local population (Source: www.instituteccd.org )
a common vision and a quality of life plan developed that includes all important aspects of life and provides orientation. This plan is developed jointly with all stakeholders and stages lively and authentic part of a public roll-outs. The special feature is that so for all is felt, how much energy is produced when all pull together. Vision and quality of life plan constitute both a staple and a bar for all individual activities, and each individual success is part of the common success story.
People with their own concerns and interests from the outset seriously, not taught, but also offers support and personal unfolding and development opportunities. CCD opens new spaces for a (co-) design their own environment, also because in the process creates a new relationship quality and sustainable collaborations.
Responsibilities and core competencies can be consistently and strengthens with the local people. CCD encourages people and organizations in the district to develop a lead responsibility perspective in sustainable cooperation structures. It created confidence and courage to cope with the things in common. This also encourages other actors - including authorities and foundations - to support projects and invest. Does it run in this country not often reversed by authorities trying to get acceptance and (voluntary) commitment to their plans?
the local people "empowered" (authorized). You get design spaces to articulate their interests and implement concerns. You can qualification courses perceive and be coached and supported in carrying out their tasks assumed in the CCD process. For example, are the concerns of the residents to ask by interview rather than district-also a student / inside key people of the district won and qualified. This investment in improved communication skills and relationship building therefore remains on site. The talks can "be done at eye level."
The sequence of a CCD process
The developer of the approach, Jim Capraro from Chicago, has led from 1976 to 2010, the Greater Southwest Develop-ment Corporation in Chicago and further developed this approach together with the Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC) in Chicago and the CCD institutions and disseminated. His belief and experience: "Their (neighborhood leaders) wisdom, knowledge, skill, relationships and tenacity, When organized and Strategically deployed, can yield stunning results« Meanwhile, he has over 75 neighborhoods in 27 municipalities in the United States - together, since 2012. also Berga-mo/Italien with Francesca Santaniello from Milan - accompanied the construction of a CCD process. The following, essential steps he recommends:
Accompanied by a merger of two or three local actors who take institutionally and as persons responsible for the urban development process. Here is a mix of personal commitment of the initiator / inside and start-up financing for the process helpful to but from the constellations locally dependent: Depending on who initiates the process, these people drive the process either predominantly volunteer ahead and are employed in coached or qualifies the initial phase. However, it is also conceivable that the staff of the initiating organizations exempted or - later - is established by endowment own office for the process aegis using.
- Inventory of key individuals (American "leaders") in the district. The point is to identify the informal and formal "management personnel" in the district and address: so although officially Competent and recognized personalities "without an office." These include persons of initiatives of the residents / inside and civic engagement in the district, of agencies, organizations and institutions, people from politics, municipal government and administration, from the private sector as well as individuals who are informally excellent network in the district.
- Integrating the key people - as a conscious and deliberate building relationships through so-called one-on-one interviews. These are used to determine the respective viewpoints on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges (SWOT) for the district as well as the concerns and self-interests of key individuals.
Summarizing and filtering out what they have learned by the interviews will be analyzed and summarized in a report.The care and the exact listening in the design and implementation of these first steps - by Jim Capraro
Figure 2: Listening - here Jim Capraro the CCD Workshop in Munichalso affectionately called "baby steps" - are crucial for the process to gain momentum.
- First meeting of key personnel, the exchange and relationship building between these enables and developed. For the reporting of the results of the interviews are Bewoh-ner/innen that can represent the concerns expressed authentic, asked to present the results orally (recruiting new leader presenters). An open discussion about their meaning (also for the local economy) adjoins the presentation. As a common perspective is the aim to develop a common vision adopted. The exchange should be continued - other people from the district will be to personally approached and invited.
- At a second meeting, the group of key persons is expanded and continued the exchange and relationship building.
- In a one-day workshop Visions all key persons from citizenship, authorities, institutions, politics and business come together to develop a long-term vision for the district. At the end of the day a joint district-vision (vision statement) is formulated, which is supported by a broad majority.
- Only after the development of the vision to break down into smaller units is planning (project groups). These each edit topics or drive forward project ideas to implement the long term will help avert the vision. The project groups meet in the district parallel, so that by the end of the pro-jektgruppensitzungen still a short joint partners about each Planungsfortschrit-te is possible. In the process of concretization of the project ideas both key people and sponsors / donors and potential inside / inside to be involved in order to implement individual plans and pro-jects can. Again, the goal is to seek other sources of support. A switch first actions in this phase emphasizes on the one hand that it is not "just" talking the talk, but above all comes to action. On the other hand it is clear that one can already begin during the planning, implementing the first projects. The key people involved in the vision and planning process talk about their personal relationships, the authorities representative / inside higher levels on the Lau-concerned. Towards the end of the planning process - even before the release - held meetings in order to inform them about the planning status and to discuss how the project may become a common success story. A comprehensive and in-depth quality of life plan corresponds stands.
- Only now - about 12 to 18 months after the start of the process - there is a public presentation (the roll-out) of the Quality of Life Plan. As part of a district-party vision and project ideas of the Quality of Life Plan will be presented to the public. Decision maker / makers from politics and administration (above the district level), potential donors / actors inside as well as other recognized institutions in the district will be invited to form the audience for the district presentation. The district presentation thus forms the foundation for the next longest stage of the process:
- Reacting implement, implement"
Central to the success of CCD, therefore, the community organizing skills of individuals who initiate and drive the process. These people like from 2-3 local organizations coming together working-th or even an office ("lead agency") set up for the overall control of the process. The critical factor is that the need to identify the lead agency, that she does not do this work for themselves, but in order to advance the common cause ("The critical factor is did the lead agency must Recognize thatthis work is not about Itself, it is about advancing the collective effort. ") (Caproro 2013). In addition, a longer-term commitment is needed and above all credible "personal" investment and often also associated with start-up funding. Nevertheless: "The process is not driven by money - it is driven by will and attractive goals," said Jim Carparo 2011 with a workout in Munich. Then it will also be possible to develop this financial resources.
For more information on CCD approach can be found bundled on the website of the CCD Institutes (but see also other sources in the bibliography).
Impetus for the Social Urban Development in Germany
CCD is the central question of how we want to live in the future, find common perspectives and feasible implementations: not waiting, but tackling. This attitude could help us to cope with crises and preserve quality of life and common guidelines for financial and social tensions. Because not only the program "Socially Integrative City" the funds have been reduced. Rather, the welfare state in this country is increasingly under scrutiny. Some municipalities may now no longer finance social benefits and are highly indebted. In addition, in this country the experience was often made that processes of urban development could not be firmly embedded. Instead, broke out in many cases with the end of support (sperioden) the painstakingly built networking, cooperation and coordination structures away again. So in 2010 pleaded BAG Social Urban Development in a position paper for a stronger integration and qualification of the vital forces on the ground in sustainable cooperation structures: "The key players for the perpetuation of the social city are the ones who designed the district before the phase of the funding and will do after the period of special grant further "(BAG Social Urban Development and Community Work 2010, p 5).
For CCD, however, are the citizens and their key people as the driving force for social and economic regeneration of the district in the center of all activities: at process start, wide and bottom-up, low-threshold, at eye level, continuously and with influence - and to implement with (not necessarily in) oriented initiative. In addition, CCD is created as process design differently and with a view to longer-term development. Thus, the approach meets many local evaluation findings in recent years: greater participation, higher accompanied cooperation quality, continuity in relationship building, cross-sectoral cooperation. It is because of its political and quite comprehensive orientation, which also includes the local economic policy, also suitable for larger urban areas.
Transferred to German conditions this means to develop itself especially new roles and cooperation between understanding-Governing (management, such as social media), professionals in institutions and organizations, politicians / inside and the citizens. It's about quality of cooperation and willingness of the person responsible. In addition, it covers the development of cooperation and division of labor between paid professional staff and the voluntary commitment of the inhabit-run and residents. For new roles belongs also to accept a neutral, non-self-interest-led process organization that may fill this role. Because it is a broker, Manager and Organizer (Capraro, 2013) between the actors develop sustainable collaborations that lead to great advances in development and have an added value for all stakeholders. The benefit of this different approach is a higher identification and sustainable participation and active involvement in a synergy of its own concerns and common sense.
To apply CCD in Germany, both a district in a larger community as well as a small community would be a concrete factor. Whether the players want to tackle development challenges proactively or want to do something special because problems exist or even existing structures and tasks can no longer be financed, both of which is conceivable. It is important that politics and administration are open to enter into a new alliance with organizations, institutions and citizens in order to be successful together - and it also give control power. Initiator / inside the district are then some actors and residents / inside, who have a strong interest in a better future development of their environment and are willing to personally assume responsibility for this. All jointly seek no quick project or public relations success, but develop relationships and projects in the time it takes.
In order to develop a transfer from CCD to Germany conceptually, it takes a pioneering spirit and courage to develop a new way. If we want to make our way to an empowering (empowe-red) participatory culture (IIED 2008) or a "real culture of participation" (Hummel, 2013) to implement, we can also choose from the criticism of participation process learn a lot and this with transparency, empowerment implement results nissoffenheit and clear mandate or discretion of high-quality (Zoeller 2013).
Important impulses of the CCD approach for future social city development could therefore be the following:
1 Involve the needs and concerns of local key persons intense and collect feedback from district-planning;
2 Commitment seek - even for cooperation - and identity in the district form;
3 Open design spaces with seriousness and consistency and pair this invitation to the acquisition of (joint) responsibility;
4 Build relationships, develop and manage alliances and forge viable;
5 Teach and live cohesion as the main entertainment for the common success credible.
Further information and literature
German-language articles on CCD:
Goede, Wolfgang C. (2011): New quality of life for our cities by Community Development; http://www.netzwerk-gemeinsinn.net/content/view/671/218 .
Goede, Wolfgang C. (2011): Community Development - new ways of integration and transformation; http://www.netzwerk-gemeinsinn.net/content/view/664/218 .
Goede, Wolfgang C. (2011): New approach to participation Districts / / CCD Premiere in Europe: data, nevertheless times your neighbors! http://www.netzwerk-gemeinsinn.net/content/view/676/218 .
Goede, Wolfgang C. (2012): Keep your COINS, I want CHANGE! Ways out of Poverty - Travel to CHICAGO; http://www.netzwerk-gemeinsinn.net/content/view/684/142/ .
For detailed information, materials, manuals and best practice examples in English on the websi-tes: www.institute-ccd.org , www.lisc.org , www.Capraroconsulting.com (here also a video "Making connecti-ons" on the CCD Process in Southwest Chicago), www.newcommunities.org , http://www.lisc.org/sustainable/ .
Capraro, Jim (2004): Community Organizing + Community Development = Community Transformation. In: Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol 26, pp. 151-161; http://capraroconsulting.com/media/Journal+Of+Urban+Affairs+V26.pdf .
BAG Social Urban Development and Community Work (2010): Position Paper »Recommendations for sustain-able development of> Social City '" Hannover; http://www.bagsozialestadtentwicklung.de/fileadmin/downloads/BAG_Weiterentwicklung__Soziale_Stadt_2010.pdf .
Capraro, Jim (2013): Can successful development Communiy be anything but comprehensive? In: Shelter Force. The Journal of Affordable Housing and Community Building, Winter
Hummel, Konrad (2013): True culture of participation strengthens our cities, in: Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development / National Urban Development Policy (ed.): city: pilot special. Make citizen participation with effect. Interview with Dr. Konrad Hummel, S.
International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) (2008): Towards empowered participation: stories and reflections. In: Participatory learning and action, No. 58, pp. 7 ff ( http://pubs.iied.org/14562IIED.html ), quoted by Goede, Wolfgang C. (2013): Research, technology and civil society. Dossier on a new format involvement, pp. 24f; http://www.maecenata.eu/images/documents/mi/resources/2013_op68.pdf .
Zöller, Katharina (2013): Discuss and evaluate lay science: Participation in science subjects. Experience and quality requirements. In: Environment and Human Information Service (UMID), No. 2-2013, pp. 67-74; https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/419/publikationen/umid_2_2013.pdf .
Maren Schüpphaus , network community spirit eV and consultant, facilitator and mediator for dialogue: impulse and ScienceDialogue designed and hosted since 1995, processes of dialogue with citizens and "stakeholders", especially on technology assessment - both for-profit and non-profit sector. In many investment products in Germany she misses increasingly the chance to enable mutual learning processes and thus improve the wisdom of decisions. It therefore welcomes comments and estimates the extent to which CCD can give important impetus - and is available for further information and exchange happy to help!